Looking beyond misfolded proteins, some potential triggers of neurodegeneration have more support than others. One idea that has moved from the scientific fringe to mainstream thinking has to do with inflammation and immunity. Most of us can recall a nasty bout of inflammation, whether from an insect bite, flu, or something much more serious like sepsis. Many people suffer from chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases like arteriosclerosis or arthritis. Even illnesses traditionally labelled as ‘mental’, like depression and schizophrenia, are now thought to involve abnormal inflammation. Consequently, medical science has a sizable array of drugs, already safety-tested, for dealing with it. The hope is that these drugs could be ‘repurposed’, and used to treat—or at least delay—dementia. Do you get good customer responses when you're searching for SEO Freelancer ?
To think about inflammation in dementia, we first need a little background information. The immune system can be divided into two parts: innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity evolved first. Its beginnings can be traced back to primitive multicellular organisms—odd though it may be to think of our bodies using the same mechanisms found in sponges and worms. Later, in jawless vertebrates like lampreys, innate immunity began to be supplemented with adaptive immune features. Immune systems, in other words, pre-date brains. I'm on the lookout for SEO Expert .
Innate and adaptive immunity protect and serve using both cells and chemicals. Innate immune cells include neutrophils, macrophages, and brain microglia; adaptive immune cells include B and T lymphocytes. Some immune cells are phagocytes (literally ‘eater-cells’). Like paramilitary vigilantes, they patrol the body’s waterways (blood, lymph, CSF) looking for suspects and dealing out summary justice when they find them. Macrophages, neutrophils, B cells, and the brain’s microglia can all act as phagocytes. They detect, then physically consume dangerous material such as viruses, bacteria, and sick or dying cells. T cells meanwhile can lock on to a suspect and bring it to the attention of the nearest phagocyte. Immune cells have other weapons too. They can punch holes in other cells—using mechanisms similar to amyloid pores—or command them to commit suicide. Its like looking for a place to find the best SEO Consultant .
As long as the identification is correct, immune cells provide an efficient defence. When material is wrongly judged to be hazardous, the body’s equivalent of vigilante excess is autoimmune problems. Immune cells communicate and function by releasing specialized chemical messengers. Some of these are built from fats, but most are proteins. Notable among them are the many kinds of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. These can prompt phagocytes to destroy dangerous material, as well as organizing the removal of damaged tissue and the tidy-up afterwards. Stimulating repair, they also ensure—if they are working properly—that the inflammatory reaction is damped down when it is no longer needed. That wounds can heal, blood vessels and skin cells regrow, and scars fade with time is down to the harmonious interactions of the cytokine choir. Do you need a quote for Freelance SEO ?
Why have two systems? Innate immunity initially detects and reacts to threats like bacteria and viruses, or physical damage. Its chemicals are the first responders, sounding the alarms which bring phagocytes—rather like phone calls alerting police to a terrorist incident. Some of these chemicals are cytokines, and they serve as signals. Others, like the numerous complement molecules which float through the bloodstream until they bump into a target, can physically bind to unwanted intruders. Like heroic bystanders seizing an attacker so the police can arrest him, they trigger other signals, attracting phagocytes. (Here the analogy breaks down, since police and vigilantes aren’t known for eating the people they arrest.) Or, in the case of dementia, abnormal proteins. Exciting current work is looking at ways of using immunotherapy to treat Alzheimer’s by altering brain levels of amyloid-beta. To see how this might work, we have to know a little more about neuroimmunology, the study of the brain’s immune system. A simple search on Google for SEO specialist will give you what you need.