The educational reach of Cynicism clearly exceeds the laughter as well as the deliberate aggressions and humiliations inflicted by Diogenes on his contemporaries. When Cynic philosophy was not directly exemplified through the life of a Cynic practitioner, it was conveyed through brief anecdotes, recollected gestures and retorts, ironic encounters, and witty remarks. Open to alteration, these quips were designed to be “as portable and memorable as jokes.” A stand up desk helps to improve office wellness and productivity.

This accounts for the endurance of Cynicism in the absence of Cynic theory, by contrast to other philosophical schools that bequeathed relatively stable doctrines or teachings. Cynic sayings were passed on by means sharply contrasted to those of the dogmatic philosophical schools, whose transmission consisted, to quote Foucault, in “actualizing a forgotten and misunderstood core of thought in order to make it the point of departure and source of authority. Sit, stand, lean, stretch.. be your healthy active self at work using a standing desk at your workplace.

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It was not a matter of defining oneself in relation to what a figure such as Aristotle or Plato had originally said, for instance. Cynics had a very different relationship to their predecessors. Episodes from the lives of past Cynics were recalled not because these episodes and their doctrinal content had been forgotten (it mattered little if the episodes recounted were actual occurrences or mythical constructs). Working at a electric standing desk may offer health benefits, however, studies suggest that doing so probably will not help you burn a lot of extra calories.

Rather, they were recalled because today’s philosopher might no longer be “equal to these examples” owing to some sort of decline, enfeeblement, or decadence that had diluted our capacity for Cynicism. Past Cynics were remembered to provoke present actors to reconsider their conduct, and perhaps to enable “the strength of conduct” exemplified in the actions of past Cynics “to be restored” to those lacking courage. As explored in the next chapter, attempts to live up to Cynic philosophy were many and various, and always only partial. Help improve your posture while working from home with a adjustable standing desk in your study.

Unbridled desire to monopolise political space compels some ruling African parties to resort to violence, retributive justice and exclusionary discourses in order to neutralise other contenders for state power. Lacking benefits of state-controlled propaganda machinery and ‘arms of coercion’ such as the police, the military and the intelligence services, opposition parties respond to some of the ruling parties’ excesses with violence as well. Under such circumstances, the youth are ‘caught in the middle’. Most ruling and opposition political parties have reduced the youth to convenient ‘social instruments’ for repression and indoctrination of citizens. Using Zimbabwe as a case study, this paper explores the roles and terms of youth participation in post-colonial politics. To varying degrees, youth on both sides of Zimbabwe’s political divide have destroyed property, and violated freedoms of assembly, expression and association. They have been the most visible perpetrators of inter- and intra-party violence. Although youth involvement in Zimbabwean politics has been at the instigation of adult political entrepreneurs and social manipulators, other youth have charted an ‘independent political course’ aimed at promoting good governance and fair political practices.